Lung Cancer

The world over, lung cancer is one of the most common cancers and a leading cause of cancer deaths in both men and women.
Lung cancer is also known as bronchogenic carcinoma begins in lungs with an uncontrolled division and proliferation of cells that eventually forms a mass known as tumour and spread to other parts of the body. It’s one of the most preventable kinds of cancer. You can minimize the chances to have lung cancer by not smoking and avoiding passive exposure to tobacco smoke.

Based on the microscopic appearance of the tumour cells, lung cancer is broadly classified into following two types:

  • Small cell lung cancers (SCLC).
  • Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC).

SCLC constitutes about 10%-15% of cases and strongly related to cigarette smoking. It is the most aggressive and fast growing of all the cancer types.
NSCLC constitutes about 85% of all cases. NSCLC has further three main types according to the type of cells found in the tumour, such as Adenocarcinomas, Squamous cell carcinomas, and Large cell carcinomas.
SCLC and NSCLC cancer types are produced, spread, and treated by using different methods or procedures.

Signs and Symptoms

In early stages, Lung cancer usually has no symptoms.
When symptoms start to appear, include;

  • Chronic, hacking, raspy cough that doesn’t go away and gets worse for a long time
  • Repeated respiratory infections including bronchitis or pneumonia
  • Constant pain in chest
  • Wheezing, Shortness of breath, or Hoarseness
  • Coughing up blood
  • Neck and face swelling
  • Loss of weight and appetite
  • Weakness and Fatigue


Oncologists may use an extensive range of diagnostic procedures and tests to confirm lung cancer, including:

  • The history and physical examination
  • The chest X-ray
  • CT (computerized tomography)
  • Low-dose helical CT scan (or spiral CT scan)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Positron emission tomography (PET)
  • Bone scans
  • Sputum cytology
  • Bronchoscopy
  • Needle biopsy
  • Thoracentesis
  • Blood tests
  • Molecular testing

Staging of Lung cancer

Staging is the extent to which cancer has spread in the body. It helps to evaluate cancer’s size, its invasion into surrounding cells or tissue, as well as the presence of metastases in the lymph nodes or other organs. Staging is important to help doctors for determining a particular cancer treatment from stage I to IV in order of severity.


Primary treatment involves surgical removal of the lung cancer, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy, as well as combinations of all these treatments. Also, immunotherapy and targeted therapies are also used more often, without harming normal cells.

If you want to learn more about treatment options, its side effects, or any other query related to cancer treatment, our best team of Oncologists and Cancer Surgeons are here to help you.