Worldwide, esophageal cancer is considered one of the deadliest disease. In some specific regions, a higher percentage of esophageal cancer may be attributed to excessive alcohol and tobacco use, specific nutritional habits and obesity.
Esophageal cancer is the proliferation of cancer cells in the lining layer of the esophagus (food-pipe) that may spread into the other layers of the esophagus and other organs right from throat to stomach.


  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma- Here, the cancer cells line the inner esophagus, and can occur along the whole esophagus.
  • Adenocarcinoma- These cancer cells are typically developed in gland cells in lower one third of the esophagus. It is largely related to acid- peptic disease or in layman’s language, gastritis.


  • Difficulty in swallowing
  • Pain during swallowing
  • Indigestion and heartburn
  • Weight loss
  • Chest Pain
  • Coughing
  • Hoarseness of Voice

Risk Factors

There are various factors that cause an increased risk of developing esophageal cancer, including:

  • Smoking or tobacco use.
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
  • Excessive use of alcohol
  • Barrett’s esophagus
  • Age, Gender, and Race


  • Barium swallow X-ray
  • Endoscopy
  • Endoscopic ultrasound Biopsy
  • Computed tomography (CT) scans
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) scan
  • Thoracoscopy, Laryngoscopy, and laparoscopy


The severity of esophageal cancer depends on its stages from (I through IV); the stage IV Esophageal cancer is the most advanced cancer.


There are more chances of survival and success rates if the esophageal cancer is caught early. But unfortunately, most of the time esophageal cancer is diagnosed in an advanced stage (when it has spread throughout the esophagus and beyond). Esophageal cancer treatment depends on various factors, such as stage and the overall patient health. Commonly used treatment options are Surgery, Radiation therapy, Chemotherapy, Photodynamic therapy, and Electro-coagulation.

If you have found any persistent signs and symptoms that bother you then immediately make an appointment with a specialist doctor or oncologist.