Aplastic anaemia is a rare, potentially life-threatening but treatable disorder when the bone marrow stops producing new blood cells (haemopoiesis). Aplastic anaemia can develop slowly but come suddenly and once a blood count gets too low, it can become life threatening.

Aplastic anaemia is 2-3 times more commonly found in Asia compared to the West. It most commonly affects in later teens or young adults between the ages of 15 years and 25 years.

Types and Causes:

Aplastic anaemia has mainly of two types, i.e. Acquired aplastic anemia and Inherited aplastic anemia.

Acquired Aplastic Anemia is more commonly found in adults and may cause due to:

  • Viruses such as HIV or Epstein-Barr
  • Medications
  • Toxic chemicals
  • Radiation or chemotherapy for Cancers

Inherited Aplastic Anemia is most commonly found in children and young adults. It is usually caused by gene defects, and also may cause a higher risk of developing leukemia and other cancers.


Its symptoms depend on the type of blood deficiency, but a patient may be low on all the three blood cells.
Common symptoms for each type of blood cells are:

RBCs deficiency:

  • Pale skin
  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest pain
  • Tiredness
  • Headaches
  • Dizziness
  • Irregular heartbeat

WBCs deficiency:

  • Fever
  • Infection

Low platelet count:

  • Bruising and bleeding
  • Nosebleeds


If the exact cause is identified, then a treatment approach is to get rid of that trigger, and the condition may go away itself. But it rarely happens that the exact cause is diagnosed.

If a patient’s condition is not severe, he or she may not require any treatment until unless blood count drops below a minimum level. Once it happens, hormones or drugs are prescribed to help bone marrow to produce more blood cells. In addition, Antibiotics and Antifungal medications may also be prescribed to fight infection.

In most of the cases, a patient may require a blood transfusion at some point.

Sometimes, in very low blood count patients, a bone marrow or stem cell transplant may be advised to boost up patient’s ability to make blood cells. But this procedure is most successful in younger people who have transplanted with the donor bone marrow from a close relative.

Till the time of availability of donor, a patient may be prescribed with various medications to stop immune system attack on patient’s own bone marrow.

Although bone marrow transplantation and immunosuppression can improve the chances of long-term survival of patients with aplastic anaemia, sometimes both of these treatments may have serious risks.

A right diagnosis at a right time is the key to ensure a treatment success.

If you are also experiencing any of symptoms related to Aplastic Anaemia, immediately consult with a specialist doctor or Clinic.

For any query related to Aplastic Anaemia, you can visit a renowned Chandigarh Cancer and Diagnostic Center (CCDC) and get the expert advice from one of the best Hematologists in the region.